Equity and Inclusion Annotated Bibliography

Lori Halverson-Wente’s
2021-2022 Sabbatical Documentation

The Annotated Bibliography documents the materials I reviewed in initial research on the topics related to Intercultural Communication Competency, work with my spouse, Mark Halverson-Wente, on the OER Book we are co-authoring, as well as work that instructors suggested from short courses and training sessions I attended during my sabbatical.

  • The OER book developed and co-authored during my sabbatical, Developing intercultural Communication Competence, also includes numerous citations in each chapter and attributions where creative commons materials were integrated. I did not include all of the resources used in the OER book as it is quite extensive and beyond the scope of this report’s annotated resource goal. The OER Book is located at: https://mlpp.pressbooks.pub/interculturalcommunicationcompetence/
  • To learn more about my sabbatical topics, I attended numerous online MN State short courses, participated in the MN State OER Learning Communities of Fall 2021 and Spring 2022, and attended official IDI (Intercultural Development Inventory) training. Additionally, I interviewed over 100 individuals and attended many other training seminars, online library events, publisher’s training, conferences, university/college special speaker presentations, brown bag lunches, seminars, etc. I have included a PowerPoint documenting the online training I received.
  • In the following document, I have included short descriptions of the articles and websites I used to learn more about equity and diversity. Some annotations include my reflections along with, as noted with the attribution citation, the descriptions of the original author (e.g., abstract), the site hosting the material (e.g., TED Talk or YouTube, the library (e.g., database descriptions), or the description given to me as a student by the trainer/educator leading the short course (e.g. Equity 101’s instructors).
  • I have organized the Annotated Bibliography based on topics related to my sabbatical plan. I consulted with librarians on citing descriptions from abstracts/databases:

Annotated Bibliography

Topics of Equity & Inclusion

Citizens League. (2022 July 25). The Citizens League creates and advances solutions for Minnesota. Citizens League. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from https://citizensleague.org/

  • The Citizens League is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that empowers people to engage in civic life and public policy to make Minnesota a better place to live and work for everyone. Leading with a multi-partisan approach, we develop leaders in public policy, build awareness of issues, and create firm public policy.

Educational Equity Department. OutFront Minnesota. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.outfront.org/educationalequity

  • OutFront MN, in their website’s description, notes that  “Educational Equity means finding what every student needs to be successful – academically, socio-emotionally, and everything-in-between- and getting it for them. The process is complex, dynamic, and ongoing: owning flaws and biases, engaging in courageous conversations to challenge prejudice and discrimination, creating environments where students feel safe to share what they need, and breaking down any systems that are creating barriers. Students who feel valued, seen, and celebrated are the ones who will find success. Minnesota’s Educational Equity gap is one of the worst in the nation. We need to continue to work together so that every student can get what they need” (Educational Equity Department, 2022).

Executive brief – statewide crisis: Minnesota’s Education Achievement Gaps. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. (2019 October). Retrieved February 15, 2022, from https://www.minneapolisfed.org/policy/education-achievement-gaps/executive-brief

  • “Minnesota has failed to close achievement gaps for decades, but there is hope that the state can break this trend and provide an education that works for all Minnesota students” (Executive brief, 2019).

Hinrichs, E., & Writer, M. P. S. (2021 March 5). Education equity: What’s ailing Minnesota? MinnPost. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from https://www.minnpost.com/community-voices/2021/03/education-equity-whats-ailing-minnesota/

  • The Author Remarks: “Minnesota has one of the nation’s worst education achievement gaps between black and white students. In 2019, it ranked 50th for racial disparities in high school graduation rates. The Minnesota Report Card highlights the wide gaps in teachers and staff count, and math and reading achievement levels between white students versus Black and Latinx students due to systemic injustice. The Minnesota Legislature has bills in the Senate (SF 446) and the House (HF 217) — the Increase in Teachers of Color Act — which when signed into law are hoped to create the comprehensive systemic change that is needed to ensure students of color have teachers who reflect their experiences and/or identities, which has proven to result in higher student achievement” (Sohoni, 2022).

MN Department of Administration. (2021 July 16). Diversity, equity, and inclusion. Minnesota.gov. Retrieved April 24, 2022, from https://mn.gov/admin/government/ocdr/public-engagement/diversity-equity-inclusion.jsp

  • Resources shared by MN Department of Administration.

Myers Vernā. (2011). Moving diversity forward: How to go from well-meaning to well-doing. American Bar Association, Center for Racial & Ethnic Diversity.

  • “Written for the legal community, this book provides an introduction to diversity and inclusion, plus guidance on cultural competence, bias, privilege, and allyship” – as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Myers, V. A. (2014). What if I say the wrong thing?: 25 habits for culturally effective people. American Bar Association.

  • “This short and accessible guide introduces us to 25 simple steps for creating a more inclusive environment,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Harvard. (n.d.). Project implicit. Take a Test. Retrieved April 2, 2022, from https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

  • Sets of “quizzes” to help assess implicit bias. I have used this site (as have many of our RCTC instructors) in my COMM classes.

Office of Equity and Inclusion. Minnesota State – Office of Equity and Inclusion. (n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2022, from https://www.minnstate.edu/system/equity/index.html

  • The “At a Glance: MN State Office of Equity and Inclusion Strategic Plan” page states:
    • “The Equity 2030 initiative is in the pursuit of “ensuring inclusive excellence is embedded in our colleges and universities and across all our practices.” It is the Office of Equity and Inclusion’s vision that diversity, equity, and inclusion become woven into the fabric of the operations of Minnesota State and integrated into the work of administrators, faculty and staff, as well as in the experiences of all students. Students will develop an understanding and awareness of equity, diversity, and inclusion. Faculty and staff and administrators will not only understand how diversity, equity, and inclusion affects them in their roles, but also how they can act with intention to improve and embrace diversity, achieve equity in outcomes, and provide an inclusive experience for all members of the Minnesota State community” (Office of Equity and Inclusion, n.d.).

Rochester Community and Technical College Equity and Inclusion Strategic Committee. (n.d.). Rochester Community and Technical College. Retrieved March 21, 2022, from https://www.rctc.edu/services/student-affairs/equity/diversity-council-at-rctc/

Rochester Community and Technical College. (n.d.). Rochester Community and Technical College. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https://www.rctc.edu/services/student-affairs/equity/eqiuty-and-inclusion-resources/

  • Equity and Inclusion resources listed that are available to RCTC students, faculty, staff, administration, and community members.

Support our work. Voices for Racial Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://voicesforracialjustice.org/

  • This Minneapolis, Minnesota-based organization shares, “We work with communities to shape narratives that advance racial justice. Our analysis reveals the impact of policies on Black, Indigenous, and people of color and provides an alternative strategy that is equity & community-driven” (Support our work, n.d.).

Urban League – Twin Cities. (n.d.). Minnesota equity in action framework – ultcmn.org. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://ultcmn.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/MN-Equity-in-Action-Framework-rev.01.25.22.fin_.pdf

  • This report is described within their acknowledgments:
    • “The Minnesota Equity in Action Framework is the work of the members of the Minnesota Every Student Succeeds Act Equity Leadership Learning Community. The primary authors are Macarre Traynham, Director of the Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Center, Minnesota Department of Education, Marquita Stephens, VicePresident, Strategic Engagement and Chief Strategy Officer, Urban League Twin Cities, and Kandace Logan, Executive Director of Equity and Integration, Minneapolis Public Schools. Collectively, the authors bring over 60 years of experience in education as school leaders and classroom teachers, with expertise in policy development, community engagement, coaching and non-profit management. The inclusion of parent/family, student and system voices was critical in the development of this framework and we are grateful for their partnership” (Urban League, Twin Cities, 2022).

Wilder Foundation. (2021 January 14). Community initiatives. Wilder Foundation. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from https://www.wilder.org/community-impact/community-initiatives

  • St. Paul, Minnesota-based Wilder Foundation states: “Wilder is committed to addressing complex challenges that will advance equity in Saint Paul and across Minnesota. In our Community Initiatives, we work alongside community collaboratively, crafting solutions that impact systems, organizations, communities and individuals. Community Initiatives are not programs, but rather time-limited collaborative projects that seek to build community capacity” (Wilder Foundation, 2021).

Young, I. M. (2001). Equality of Whom? Social Groups and Judgments of Injustice. The Journal of Political Philosophy, 9(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9760.00115

  • MN PALS Description Library Data Base Description:
    • “Many claims of inequality & demands for redress are based on comparisons of groups of individuals, such as men & women or blacks & whites. In this essay, the author asks whether group-conscious practices of assessing inequality are justified &, if so, why. First, she considers political & philosophical challenges to theories & practices that access inequality in terms of social groups. She argues that assessing inequality solely by comparing the status of individuals provides little basis for claims about social justice. A large class of social justice issues, especially those concerning claims that inequalities are unjust, involve evaluation of institutional relations & processes of society. Evaluating inequality in terms of social groups enables analysts to argue that some inequalities are unjust because such group-based comparisons reveal important aspects of institutional relations & processes. Specifically, identifying inequalities among groups helps identify structural inequalities. The author theorizes structural inequality as a set of reproduced social processes that reinforce one another to facilitate or constrain individual actions. Identifying patterned inequalities on measures of well-being among groups is the first step in identifying forms of basic & persistent injustice. The author concludes by discussing what this means for social policymaking. 24 References. A. Funderburg”  (Funderburg, 2022).

Topics of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

Adichie, C. N. (2009). The danger of a single story. YouTube. YouTube. Retrieved December 1, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg&t=898s.

  • The TED Talk description notes: “Our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice — and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding” (Adichie, 2009).
  • I have used this video in all my classes since I had the fortune to see it. It was required in the Equity 101 class.

Chapter six: Culturally responsive pedagogy: Effective teaching. (2011). Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Teaching Like Our Students’ Lives Matter, 95–118. https://doi.org/10.1163/9781780520315_007

Corces-Zimmerman, C., Utt, J., & Cabrera, N. L. (2017). YPAR, Critical Whiteness, and Generative Possibilities. Democracy & Education, 25(1).

  • Abstract: “In this response to the article by Tanner and Corrie, the authors provide three critiques of the methodology and theoretical framing of the study with the hopes of informing future scholarship and practice. Specifically, the three critiques addressed in this paper include the integration of CWS frameworks and YPAR methodology, the application and description of CWS and YPAR frameworks, and the role of power in the relationship between educator and student that served as the central medium for the study” (MN PALS, 2022).

Dudley-Marling, Curt (2015). The Resilience of Deficit Thinking. Journal of Teaching and Learning, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 1-12. DOI: 10.22329/jtl.v10i1.4171. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317797045_The_Resilience_of_Deficit_Thinking.

  • This article describes and analyzes the dangers of “deficit thinking.” Strategies are given to support an assessment-based mindset.

Gambrell, J. A. (2017). Is Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Enough? Toward Culturally “Real”-evant Curriculum. Democracy & Education, 25(1).

  • This article was used for the readings associated with the MN State “Culturally Responsive Pedagogy,” a cohort-based class taught by LuAnn Wood and Garret Smith.
  • The abstract of this article shares: “In this response to Lingley’s (2016) article ‘Democratic Foundations of Spiritually Responsive Pedagogy,’ the author invites the framework of (a)spiritually responsive curriculum to include a more direct engagement with a culturally relevant curriculum as well. The author agrees with Lingley’s postulation that (a)spirituality is deeply embedded within the worldview of many students in K-12 classrooms, whether educators include this important aspect of their (a)spirituality or not. Similar to the problems when we ignore identities of race, gender, (a)sexuality, (dis)ability, and social class, ignoring these important characteristics of students’ lived experiences is detrimental to learning outcomes and reinforces dominating narratives. Synthesizing literature from the broader educational justice movement, the author engages Lingley’s culturally responsive (a)spiritual pedagogy and invites her to more directly engage students in a culturally relevant curriculum, as well” (Gambrell, 2017).

Hammond, Z. (2015). Culturally responsive teaching and the brain: Promoting authentic engagement and rigor among culturally and linguistically diverse students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Hammond, Z. (2015 February 26). Making Culturally Responsive Teaching Manageable. Ready 4 Rigor Blog. https://crtandthebrain.com/making-crt-manageable/

Ibrahim, A., & Reza, T. (2017). Challenging White Folks Pedagogy. Democracy & Education, 25(1), 1–2.

James, M. (2021 May 25). To survive in America as a black man, make yourself small. The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, 2022, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/may/25/to-survive-in-america-as-a-black-man-marlon-james

  • Shares more on Minnesotans’ response to the tragic death of George Floyd, providing insight into processing this tragedy from a personal perspective.
  • Reading for “Equity 101 Course,” Fall 2022 by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and  Álvaro Plachejo.

Kieran, L., & Anderson, C. (2019). Connecting Universal Design for Learning With Culturally Responsive Teaching. Education and Urban Society, 51(9), 1202–1216. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124518785012

Ladson-BIllings. G. (2018 February 23). Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HR8NEPK7l0

Local and Regional Government Alliance on Race & Equity. (n.d.). Racial equity toolkit: An opportunity to operationalize equity. Government Alliance on Race and Equity. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from https://www.racialequityalliance.org/resources/racial-equity-toolkit-opportunity-operationalize-equity/

  • Used in the Equity 101 Course by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and  Álvaro Plachejo where they describe this resource as follows:
    • “From the Government Alliance on Race and Equity. Focused on providing steps for organizational change. This will be helpful as you think about creating change in your department or work area and in your institution” (2021).

Mindful reflection process for developing culturally responsive practices. Greater Good In Education. (2022 January 28). Retrieved May 1, 2022, from https://ggie.berkeley.edu/practice/mindful-reflection-process-for-developing-culturally-responsive-practices/

Ohio State University [EHE Education Technology]. (2015 October 8). Dr. Geneva Gay and Dr. Valerie Kinloch Interview. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/MsyMbSiphTo

Ormand, C. (2019 December 12). Shifting from deficit thinking to asset thinking. SAGE Musings. Retrieved December 4, 2021, from https://serc.carleton.edu/sage2yc/musings/deficit_thinking.htm

  • Used in the Equity 101 Course by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and  Álvaro Plachejo. The article shares local and national ideas and resources for shifting one’s mindset as an educator.
  • Article Abstract: “Students arrive on our campuses and in our classrooms from a rich array of backgrounds, with an almost unimaginable diversity of prior experiences. This includes a wide range of what we think of as academic preparation, which is in large part a function of the educational opportunities available to our students prior to enrollment in college. When we meet a student who is clearly struggling with college coursework, it’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking about that student as “deficient,” or at least “disadvantaged,” because they have not yet developed knowledge and skills that we expect people to learn in high school. I’ve fallen into this trap myself, more often than I care to admit. This mindset, called deficit thinking, blames our students for the imperfect educational systems that produced them. What’s particularly insidious about this is that once we begin to conflate a lack of educational opportunities with a lack of ability or motivation, we are likely to choose pedagogic strategies that are inappropriate for these smart, highly motivated students (Smit, 2012). We can make more appropriate pedagogic choices by consciously developing an asset mindset” (Ormand, Dec. 12, 2019).

Ormand, C. (2019 December 13). Evidence-based strategies for mitigating stereotype threat. SAGE Musings. Retrieved November 5, 2021, from https://serc.carleton.edu/sage2yc/musings/overcoming_stereotype.html

  • In this article, Ormand (2019) shares:
    • “The most inspiring thing about the research on stereotype threat, to me, is the power of these strategies to completely reverse performance trends for students in STEM. Using these strategies, researchers found that under-represented students were able not just to survive, but to thrive in their chosen academic disciplines. We can turn these stereotypes around” (Ormand, Dec. 13, 2019).

Ott. L. (2017). Solving the Achievement Gap Through Equity, Not Equality |TEDxYouth@Columbia. YouTube. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOQbu_3M0_Q

  • TEDex/YouTube Description: “What happens when we try to fix problems through equality? In education, equality reinforces the achievement gap by applying the same expectations and norms to unequal groups. Instead, we need equity: giving the needed resources to each individual group. Dr. Lindsey F. Ott is a troublemaker and explorer who has the great fortune to also be a teacher. She brings her rebel attitude into the classroom by establishing relationships with each individual student and designing progressive, inquiry-driving assignments to meet the needs of each learner. In 2015, Lindsey founded Energy Bee, a consulting firm dedicated to promoting career-minded educational opportunities in emerging renewable energy fields, project-based learning, and technology integration that provide opportunity for success to all students, regardless of ethnicity, social standing, or previous academic performance. Her most cherished accomplishment is the success of every student, teacher, or soul searcher she meets. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community” (Ott, 2017).
  • This video is used in the “Equity 101 Course,” Fall 2021, and suggested by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and Álvaro Plachejo.

Plan, change process, individual transformation. Racial Equity Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.racialequitytools.org//resources/plan/change-process/individual-transformation

  • Materials shared with the “Equity 101 Course,” Fall 2021, by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and Álvaro Plachejo, who state:
    • “This page will give you some resources you can use to help you develop and follow through with your individual action plan goals. It includes some links to specific plans, like ‘The 30 Day Justice Plan.’ Explore some of the links” (2021).

Ramsey, F. (2014 November 22). 5 tips for being an ally. YouTube. Retrieved November 16, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dg86g-QlM0

  • Materials shared with the “Equity 101 Course,” Fall 2021, by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and Álvaro Plachejo.
  • Also, see her website: https://www.franchesca.net/ for a wide variety of frank videos and discussions on race, equity, and inclusion.

Riback, C. [Host]. (2021 July 15). The 180 podcast: Zaretta Hammond: What is culturally responsive teaching? Retrieved from https://turnaroundusa.org/the-180-podcast-zaretta-hammond-what-is-culturally-responsive-teaching/

Smit, Renee (2012). Towards a clearer understanding of student disadvantage in higher education: problematising deficit thinking. Higher Education Research & Development, v. 31, n. 3, pp. 369-380. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2011.634383. Available online: https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11427/25370/Smit_Article.pdf?sequence=8&isAllowed=.


Tanner, S. J., & Corrie, C. (2016). Sam and Cristina: A Critical Dialogue Between a Teacher and Student About the Commoditization of People of Color by Schools. Democracy and Education, 24 (2), Article 3. Available at: http://democracyeducationjournal.org/home/vol24/iss2/3

  • This article has spurred many additional articles about the role of the educator in CRP

Utt, J., & Tochluk, S. (2020). White Teacher, Know Thyself: Improving Anti-Racist Praxis Through Racial Identity Development. Urban Education (Beverly Hills, Calif.), 55(1), 125–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916648741

  • Abstract:
    • “This article asserts that White teachers in urban schools must turn their racialized focus away from implied deficits of students of Color in the “achievement gap” frame and toward the impact their racial identities have on their craft. Through empirical analysis of White teachers’ experiences, the article suggests six areas of self-work for developing positive, anti-racist White racial identities, an integral component in culturally responsive teaching. The authors draw upon Zeus Leonardo’s “third space” of navigating Whiteness and Janet Helms’s racial identity development framework to offer practical suggestions for building more anti-racist and effective pedagogy” (Utt & Tochluk, 2020)

Utt, J. (2020 August 13). Intent vs. impact: Why your intentions don’t really matter. Everyday Feminism. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://everydayfeminism.com/2013/07/intentions-dont-really-matter/

  • Discussion on “Intent v. Impact” of classroom strategy to meet equity and inclusion goals.
  • Reading for “Equity 101 Course,” Fall 2022 by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and  Álvaro Plachejo.

Weiner, Lois (2006). Challenging Deficit Thinking. Educational Leadership, v. 61, n. 1, pp. 42-45. Available online: http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el200609_weiner.pdf

  • Suggested by the faculty at Carleton College

Williams, J. (Ed.). (2019 September 3). Out from the shadows of Minneapolis. Academia.edu. Retrieved May 2, 2022, from https://www.academia.edu/40247474/Out_from_the_Shadows_of_Minneapolis

  • Suggested from many MN State classes. This ebook is a free OER showcasing Minnesota students’ lived experiences with race, class, equity, and inclusion.
  • Reading for the Fall 2022 “Equity 101 Course,” by the instructors Marilea Bramer, Ron Ferguson, and Álvaro Plachejo.

Topics of Equity & Inclusion and Technology (UDL)

Allinger, R. [Rocky Allinger]. (2018 September 24). UDL Series [Video File]. Retrieved from: https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLmfYonNt5XwETgh-QtX6D_Mel0Ea_weKU

Bass, G. & Lawrence-Riddell, M. (2020 January 20). Culturally Responsive Teaching and UDL. FacultyFocus.com. Retrieved from https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/equality-inclusion-and-diversity/culturally-responsive-teaching-and-udl/

CAST (2018). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2. Retrieved from http://udlguidelines.cast.org

CAST (2020). UDL on Campus. Retrieved from http://udloncampus.cast.org/home

CAST.org. (2020 October 21). Sharing Stories: Antiracism and Universal Design for Learning with Andratesha Fritzgerald. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/xuDeI5m26-g

  • This source was suggested by Elizabeth Harsma, who taught the online Equity and Technology short course I attended (Harsma, 2022).
    • “Behind the scenes,” stories and important strategies from her book, Antiracism and Universal Design for Learning: Building Expressways to Success.
    • “Ideas to continue on your journey to intentionally implement antiracist practices into your teaching” (Harsma, 2022).

CAST (2021 September 17). New & Dynamic Ways Forward – UDL in Career and Technical Education. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/h1fdWpKq9sw

Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Oakland University [Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at OU]. (2017 July 24). Universal Design for Learning Series [Video File]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLEVdYHEH5JvMbG5R32VRYtKJIRhWoui4g

Chakravorti, B. (2021 July 20). How to close the digital divide in the U.S. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2021/07/how-to-close-the-digital-divide-in-the-u-s

Clyburn, M. (2018 June). Why I fight to close the digital divide. [Video file]. TEDxCollegePark. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/mignon_clyburn_why_i_fight_to_close_the_digital_divide

Degener, J. (2016 November 15). How Universal Design for Learning Creates Culturally Accessible Classrooms. EdWeek.org. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/education/opinion-how-universal-design-for-learning-creates-culturally-accessible-classrooms/2016/11

  • This source was suggested by Elizabeth Harsma, who taught the online Equity and Technology short course I attended.
    • Harsma shares, “This brief article, How Universal Design for Learning Creates Culturally Accessible Classrooms shares topics: What is UDL; Cultural Competency in the classroom; Building Understanding; Culture of Connection” (Harsma, 2022).
  1. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education. Accessibility Maze. Retrieved from https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/#/
  • This source was suggested by Elizabeth Harsma, who taught the online Equity and Technology short course I attended. Harsma shares:
    • “The Accessibility Maze game lets players experience the challenges of navigating the web that some people with disabilities experience. The learning objectives of this game are: Learn how images, and other visuals, are made accessible; Understand how web forms are made accessible; Experience how timed elements can create barriers, and Discover why mouse-only features are inaccessible to many people” (Harsma, 2022).

Jack, A. (2019 June 13). On diversity: Access ain’t inclusion. [Video file]. TEDxCambridge. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/j7w2Gv7ueOc

  • This source was suggested by Elizabeth Harsma, who taught the online Equity and Technology short course I attended. Harsma shares, “Gratitude to our colleague, Miki Huntington, for sharing this resource. ❤️  In this captioned TEDx talk video (12:42 minutes), Anthony Jack discusses the difference between access to higher education and inclusion – these core concepts can also be applied to thinking about technology in our educational spaces” (Harsma, 2022).

Julian, A. UDL and Equity in the Online Classroom – Part Three. Illinois Center for Specialized Professional Support. Retrieved from https://icsps.illinoisstate.edu/images/pdfs/CTE/Universal_Design_for_Learning/ISBE%20UDL%203_CTE%20CLASSROOM-min.pdf

Kieran & Anderson (2019). Connecting Universal Design for Learning with Culturally Responsive Teaching. Education and Urban Society, 51(9), 1202-1216. doi: 10.1177/001312451878

Lord Nelson, L. UDL in 15 Minutes – The podcast. TheUDLApproach.com. Retrieved from: https://theudlapproach.com/podcasts/

Lodge, A. (2019 June). POURing over your website: An introduction to digital accessibility. TEDxWinnipeg. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/ashleigh_lodge_pouring_over_your_website_an_introduction_to_digital_accessibility

  • This source was suggested by Elizabeth Harsma, who taught the online Equity and Technology short course I attended (Harsma, 2022).
  •  This video helps understand digital accessibility. She shares the idea of “POUR:” Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust.
  • The YouTube Description shares:
    • “Digital accessibility – what it is and why it’s important.  Most sites/apps are awful as far as accessibility goes. It’s not something that’s taught, & even when there is some awareness, it’s considered too hard and costly to implement. Ashleigh raises visibility about why it’s important from both social & business perspectives, and provides information & tools for people to take back to their own projects use. Ashleigh Lodge is the Application Development Manager at Neovation Learning Solutions, which encompasses the development, UX and QA teams for multiple products. A graduate of the Computer/Analyst Programmer (CAP) program at Red River College, she has held various development and management roles in the tech industry for the past nine years” (TEDxTalks, 2019).

Meera E. Deo, A Better Tenure Battle: Fighting Bias in Teaching Evaluations, 31 Columbia J. Gender & Law 7 (2015).

  • “Illustrates the biases against women of color in student teaching evaluations and recommends improved methods of teaching evaluation,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Novak, K. [2021 March 21]. If Equity is a Priority, UDL is a Must: Interview with Katie Novak and Mirko Chardin. (Ep. 166). [Audio podcast episode]. Cult of Pedagogy.com. Retrieved from: https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/udl-equity/

Posey. A. How to break down barriers to learning with UDL. Understood.org. Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/articles/en/how-to-break-down-barriers-to-learning-with-udl

Rafalow, M. H. (2021). Digital equality requires more than access. Phi Delta Kappan, 102(6), 26–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721721998150 Retrieved from https://kappanonline.org/digital-equality-requires-more-than-access-educational-technology-rafalow/

Ravi, V. (2020). Digital Equity: Equitable technology access & learning. In Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. & Kimmons, R. (Eds.).The K-12 Educational Technology Handbook (1st ed.). EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/k12handbook

Reich, J. (2019). Teaching our Way to Digital Equity. Educational Leadership, 76(5), 30-35. https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/teaching-our-way-to-digital-equity

Stachowiak, B. [Host]. (2015 July 23). Universal Design for Learning Interview with Mark Hofer. [Ep. 58]. Teaching in Higher Ed Podcast. Retrieved from https://teachinginhighered.com/podcast/universal-design/

Thurber, A., &  Bandy, J. (2018). Creating Accessible Learning Environments. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/creating-accessible-learning-environments/

USC Pullias [USC Pullias]. (2018 April 9). USC Pullias’ Digital Equity in Education Team Research and Findings – Animation. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://pullias.usc.edu/digitalequity

Wiley, C. (2021). What is Digital Accessibility? Iowa State Information Technology. Retrieved from: https://iastate.service-now.com/it?id=kb_article&sysparm_article=KB0012453

Topics of Bias and Microaggressions

Eberhardt, J. L. (2022). Biased: Uncovering the hidden prejudice that shapes what we see, think, and do. Penguin Books.

  • “Explains how unconscious bias affects our perception, attention, memory, and behavior, and demonstrates its impact on education, employment, housing, and criminal justice. Offers practical suggestions for organizations and individuals on how to address unconscious bias,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Levchak, C. (2019). Microaggressions and modern racism: Endurance and evolution. Palgrave MacMillian

  • Explores the causes, manifestations, and consequences of microaggressions, with a focus on higher education, workplaces, and the media,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., & Sue, D. W. (2019). Microaggression theory: Influence and implications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • “In Microaggression Theory, the original research team that created the microaggressions taxonomy . . . address[es] these issues head-on in a fascinating work that explores the newest findings of microaggressions in their sociopolitical context.” Annotation from the publisher and listed in the William & Mary Law School collection by Hellyer, (2022).

Sue, D. W., Calle, C. Z., Mendez, N., Alsaidi, S., & Glaeser, E. (2021). Microintervention strategies: What you can do to disarm and dismantle individual and systemic racism and bias. Wiley.

  • A guide to countering microaggressions with “microinterventions,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Topics of Allyship

Ally up! practice effective allyship. Cornell Health. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2022, from https://health.cornell.edu/pdf-library/ally-practice-effective-allyship

  • “This short guide provides tips on how to operate in solidarity with and advocate for the rights and well-being of diverse groups of people,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Lamont, A. (n.d.). Guide to allyship. The Guide to Allyship. Retrieved May 1, 2022, from https://guidetoallyship.com/

  • OER Materials, anyone can use in their classroom or class materials.
  • “This guide is a labor of love and provided as a shareable resource for you to use. Please make sure to credit back to the site if you decide to use any content here” (website description)
  • A starter guide to allyship with a practical list of dos and don’ts,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Topics of Intercultural Competence

Curcio, A. (2015). Addressing barriers to cultural sensibility learning lessons from social cognition theory. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/. Retrieved May 1, 2022, from https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1588&context=nlj

  • “Presents survey data showing that law students overestimate their ability to identify their own biases. Discusses how instructors can educate students about the role bias plays in the lawyering process,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Burnell, B. A., & Schnackenberg, H. (Eds.). (2021). Ethics of cultural competence in Higher Education. Apple Academic Press.

  • “Guidance on interacting with diverse cultures for instructors and administrators in higher education,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

IDI, LLC. (2022, August 2). The Roadmap to Intercultural Competence Using the IDI. Intercultural Development Inventory | IDI, LLC. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from https://idiinventory.com/

  • I am now trained as an IDI Qualifying Assessor. This website shares more about the product, the process, and the anticipated (and reported) results of administering the IDI tool.

Intercultural Competence in Higher Education: International Approaches, Assessment and Application (Darla K. Deardorff & Lily A. Arasaratnam-Smith eds. 2017).

  • “Focuses on improving learning outcomes for international students,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Antoinette Sedillo Lopez, Making and Breaking Habits: Teaching (and Learning) Cultural Context, Self-Awareness, and Intercultural Communication Through Case Supervision in a Client-Service Legal Clinic, 28 Wash. U. J.L. & Policy 37 (2008).

  • “Presents five vignettes about cultural lessons students learned through the University of New Mexico Clinical Law Program, with guidance on how instructors can enhance the learning process,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

James A. Sonne, Cross-Cultural Lawyering and Religion: A Clinical Perspective, 25 Clinical L. Rev. 223 (2018).

  • “Awareness of religious differences is an important but often overlooked factor in cultural competence. This article describes how Stanford Law School has approached religion in its clinical program,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Topics of Gender Identity

Laura Erickson-Schroth & Laura A. Jacobs, “You’re in the Wrong Bathroom!” and 20 Other Myths and Misconceptions About Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People (2017).

  • “Unpacks the most common myths and misconceptions about transgender and gender-nonconforming people, bringing together medical, social, psychological, and political aspects,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Eris Young, They/Them/Their: A Guide to Nonbinary and Genderqueer Identities (2019).

  • “Drawing on the author’s own experiences as a nonbinary person, as well as interviews and research, They/Them/Their shares common experiences and challenges faced by those who are nonbinary, and what friends, family, and other cisgender people can do to support them.” – from the back cover and suggested by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Topics of Creating an Inclusive Environment for Students

American Council on Education, Speaking Truth and Acting with Integrity: Confronting Challenges of Campus Racial Climate (2018).

  • “Lessons and insights on how to address racist incidents on college campuses,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Mallika Balachandran, Roisin Duffy-Gideon & Hannah Gelbort, Speak Now: Results of a One-Year Study of Women’s Experiences at the University of Chicago Law School, 2019 U. Chi. Legal F. 647.

  • “This extensive study focuses on the University of Chicago Law School, but also references data about other law schools. It addresses gender issues that are common throughout legal education,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Lucy Barnard-Brak, DeAnn Lechtenberger & William Y. Lan, Accommodation Strategies of College Students with Disabilities, 15 Qualitative Rep. 411 (2010).

  • “Explains the perspective and experiences of students who request accommodations,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Elizabeth Bodamer, Do I Belong Here? Examining Perceived Experiences of Bias, Stereotype Concerns, and Sense of Belonging in U.S. Law Schools, 69 J. Legal Educ. 455 (2020).

  • “Examines the experiences of women and minority law students (particularly women of color), based on a survey of 2500 law students at 17 schools,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Bennett Capers, The Law School as a White Space, 106 Minn. L. Rev. 7 (2021).

  • “Discusses why some law school environments may feel exclusionary to persons of color and reimagines a more inclusive space,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Nancy Chi Cantalupo, And Even More of Us Are Brave: Intersectionality & Sexual Harassment of Women Students of Color, 42 Harv. J. L. & Gender 1 (2019).

  • “Presents evidence that women of color in higher education report sexual harassment at disproportionately high rates, and explores the importance of intersectionality in understanding the impact of harassment and violence,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Chris Chambers Goodman & Sarah E. Redfield, A Teacher Who Looks Like Me, 27 J. Civ. Rights & Econ. Dev. 105 (2013).

  • “Emphasizes the importance of faculty diversity in creating an inclusive environment for students,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Techniques for More Inclusive Teaching

Margalynne Armstrong & Stephanie Wildman, Teaching Race/Teaching Whiteness: Transforming Colorblindness to Color Insight, 86 N.C. L. Rev. 635 (2008).

  • “Suggests that faculty should teach about racism and white privilege in first-year law courses, and shares advice on how to approach these challenging subjects,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Anastasia M. Boles, Valuing the “Race Card”: Teaching Employment Discrimination Using Culturally Proficient Instruction, 44 Thurgood Marshall L. Rev. 25 (2019).

  • “Explains why some students of color feel marginalized or alienated in the law school classroom. Describes how the author responded by incorporating cultural proficiency into her teaching,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Jeannie Suk Gersen, The Socratic Method in the Age of Trauma, 130 Harv. L. Rev. 2320 (2017).

  • “Prof. Gersen defends the continuing value of the Socratic Method, while acknowledging problems it may present for some students. She shares her approach for making her teaching more equitable and inclusive,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).
  • Describes how three university instructors applied new strategies of instruction to better engage culturally diverse students.

Topics of Hiring Diverse Faculty and Staff

Guido Calabresi, Developing Appropriate Standards for Achieving Diversity in Faculty Appointments, 87 Fordham L. Rev. 959 (2018).

  • Discusses a wide range of diverse attributes to consider in hiring law faculty, with specific recommendations for best practices.

CLEA Committee for Faculty Equity and Inclusion, The Diversity Imperative Revisited: Racial and Gender Inclusion in Clinical Law Faculty, 26 Clinical L. Rev. 127 (2019).

  • “Examines historical trends in the racial and gender composition of clinical faculty from 1980 to 2017. Discusses best practices for inclusive clinical faculty hiring,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Kevin R. Johnson, How and Why We Built a Majority-Minority Faculty, Chronicle of Higher Education, July 24, 2016.

  • “The Dean of UC Davis Law School explains how and why his school built a diverse faculty,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Kenneth Oldfield, Structural Nepotism: On the Reluctance of Law Schools to Include Social Class Origins among their Faculty Diversity Goals, 69 J. Legal Educ. 239 (2020).

  • “Explores the significance of social class in faculty hiring and offers suggestions on how to recruit faculty from diverse economic backgrounds,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Abigail J. Stewart & Virginia Valian, Recruiting Diverse and Excellent New Faculty, Inside Higher Ed, July 19, 2018.

  • “Explains how search committees can attract a broad and diverse pool of candidates,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Kellye Y. Testy, Best Practices for Hiring and Retaining a Diverse Law Faculty, 96 Iowa L. Rev. 1707 (2011).

  • “Specific recommendations on how to achieve a racially diverse law faculty,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Alina Tugend, How Serious Are You About Diversity Hiring?, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 17, 2018.

  • “An in-depth look at efforts to improve diversity in hiring at a wide range of institutions in higher education,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia (Gabriella Gutierrez y Muhs ed. 2012).

  • “[A] pathbreaking account of the intersecting roles of race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. Through personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies, more than 40 authors expose the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate the often hostile terrain of higher education, including hiring, promotion, tenure, and relations with students, colleagues, and administrators.” – from the publisher and, recommended by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Topics of Diverse Guest Speakers and Panels

Michigan Tech Diversity Council, 10 Tips on How to Organize and Promote Diverse, Inclusive Panels and Keynotes (Nov. 8, 2018).

  • “In addition to practical tips for organizers, there are a few tips on how speakers and attendees can promote diversity and inclusion,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).

Sarah Milstein, Putting an End to Conferences Dominated by White Men, Harvard Business Review (Jan. 23, 2014).

“Nine tips for organizers on how to make your speaker events more diverse,” as described by William & Mary Law School (Hellyer, 2022).


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Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Copyright © 2018 by Lori Halverson-Wente is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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