4 Read: Unit 1, Special Occasion, Related Reading Materials

Read  Unit 1 Assigned Chapters (8, 9, 17)

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This chapter organizes the related chapter readings for Unit 1: Special Occasion Speaking. You can find chapter links, summaries of the chapters, chapter outlines, key study guide questions/terms,  and links the textbook suggested resources as well as additional materials. Remember to also look to the online textbook’s glossary, activities, and terms in a bold or italic font as you prepare for class discussion, homework, and quizzes.

Associated Chapter Readings:

  • Chapter 8 
  • Chapter 9 
  • Chapter 17

Outlining and Organizing

Chapter 8 Summary:

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In Chapter 8 the focus is upon the process of creating a wide variety of relevant, well-organized outlines. Many students (as well as instructors) have been previously introduced to outlining, whether in grade school or their last college class. However, a common frustration is that seemingly every teacher and book has a new/different method to create a simple outline. Even word processing software varies in outline formats. Yet, whether using bullets or dots or letters, most folks have experienced outlines in some form or fashion. This chapter helps you to evade the confusion of “outline method overload” and find a firm common ground and see how outlines actually work in public speaking. Public speakers use two basic types of outlines: preparation of final full sentence outlines and speaking outlines. This chapter shows you how to do each of these outlines effectively. Also, you can review those examples of student work that match the sample speeches. The chapter objectives, as noted by the chapter author (Barnett, 2011):

After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Select a topic appropriate to the audience and occasion. 2. Formulate a specific purpose statement that identifies precisely what you will do in your speech. 3. Craft a thesis statement that clearly and succinctly summarizes the argument you will make in your speech. 4. Identify and arrange the main points of your speech according to one of many organizational styles discussed in this chapter. 5. Connect the points of your speech to one another. 6. Create a preparation and speaking “ (p. 8-1).

Chapter 8 “Outlining and Organizing” Outline:

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These are the key areas outlined by The Public Speaking Project.Org’s Chapter 8   (Barnette, 2011, p. 8-1)

  • The Topic, Purpose, and Thesis
    • Selecting a Topic
    • Formulating a Purpose Statement
    • Writing a Thesis Statement
  • Writing the body of your speech
    • Selecting Main Points – Selecting Sub-points
  • Organizational Styles
    • Chronological, Topical, Spatial, Comparative, Problem – Solution, Causal
  • Connecting Your Main Points
    • Transitional Statements, Internal Previews, Summaries
  • Outlining Your Speech
    • Outline Types
    • Outline Structure
      • Preparation Outline
      • Speaking Outline
    • Using the Outline

(Barnette, 2011, p. 8-1)

Chapter 8 Study Guide and Review Terms

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For the best review, see the Chapter 8 Glossary (p. 8-12), Review Section (p. 8-11) and notice the terms in bold throughout the Chapter. Additionally, for the quiz questions associated with this Unit note the Review Questions below.

Also, see page 8-11 for the text’s suggestions

  1. Do you know how your instructor wants you to display your outline?
  2. What type of outline will you hand in?
  3. How does a full sentence outline differ from an essay?
  4. Why create an outline, not an essay?
  5. What will you use to deliver the speech for notes? What does the book suggest?

See the LodeStar Student Activities Posted in D2L for Aditional Application, Review and Study Resources.

Related Online Chapter 8 Resources from The Public Speaking Project.org

Chapter 8 Identified Links

This is a set of online materials created by the chapter’s author, Julia Schmutz


Chapter 8 Videos & PowerPoints from the Textbook

The textbook offers professionally narrated PowerPoint presentations on their YouTube Channel: (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCmICWAfi4k_-OpZeJf69qiQ )

Additional Chapter 8 Online Related Materials



Introductions and Conclusions

Chapter 9 Summary

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Like saying hello and goodbye to someone you’d like to get to know better, wisely taking into account the unique context of the meeting, opening and closing a speech possess proper purposes and strategies to meet the unique challenges of a speech. Think about how you might ponder over how to “get to know someone better.” Whether this is a potentially romantic situation, a new friend, or a “networking” situation for your career, knowing how to start and end a communication event is critical to easing one’s communication anxiety in these situations. Similar to giving a speech, some folks are seeming “naturals” at “shooting the breeze” and “networking” — at giving the proverbial “elevator speech” that leads to a promotion. Others, however, might simply refrain from initiating conversation due to a number of factors — communication anxiety, a culturally-based tendency to let others speak first, or just personal preference. Military educators, as well as coaches, will stress in the training of their soldiers and athletes — know how to get in and how to get out of this situation!  This chapter offers advice on how you might do this.

As you prepare each of your speeches, try out a number of the suggestions in the chapter. When delivering your speech, do not settle for your first try at an attention device. How many rhetorical questions can one class listen to? Add your own flair to this traditional approach — try out several suggestions in this chapter and listen to yourself as you practice. In general, can you think of an opening that brings up a story or situation you are very familiar with and would appeal to others? Make certain that you able to name and use the Chapter’s “Attention-Getting Strategies, as outlined in the chapter:  Tell a Story, Refer to the Occasion, Refer to Recent or Historical Events, Refer to Previous Speeches, Refer to Personal Interest, Use Startling Statistics, Use an Analogy, Use a Quotation, Ask a Question, and Use Humor (Sandmann, 2011, p. 9-2 — 9-7).

Similarly, once an opening attention strategy or device is decided, next think through how you can craft a parallel conclusion. How can your clincher, or last memorable statement, mirror your attention-getting statement in the introduction?  Finally, as you try out the advice in this chapter, remember, in particular, to take the advice of keeping it brief! If you enlist all the suggestions, your opening and ending will leave little room for your actual message.

The advice in this chapter can be utilized for a variety of speech purposes. However, when delivering Commemorative and Tribute Special Occasion Speeches, it is especially important to adapt your choices to the situation, occasion, audience — and time. As special as these occasions are, as you present there always seems to be someone glancing at their watch, cell, or the clock on the wall.

Chapter 9 Outline

These are the key areas outlined by the author of The Public Speaking Project.Org’s Chapter 9, Dr. Warnnen Sandmann (2011):

  • Introduction  Functions of Introductions
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    • Gain Attention and Interest
    • Gain Goodwill
    • State the Purpose Clearly
    • Preview and Structure the Speech
  • Attention-Getting Strategies
    • Tell a Story or Refer to the Occasion
    • Refer to Recent or Historical Events
    • Refer to Previous Speeches
    • Refer to Personal Interest
    • Use Startling Statistics
    • Use an Analogy
    • Use a Quotation
    • Ask a Question
    • Use Humor
  • Preparing the Introduction: Construct the Introduction Last; Make it Relevant; Be Succinct; Write it Out Word for Word
  • Functions of Conclusions
    • Prepare the Audience for the end of the speech
    • Present Any Final Appeals
    • Summarize and Close
    • End with a Clincher
    • Appeals and Challenges
  • Composing the Conclusion: Prepare the Conclusion; Do Not Include any New Information

(Sandmann, 2011, p. 9-1)


Chapter 9 Study Guide and Review Terms:

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See the Chapter’s Glossary (Sandmann, 2011, p. 9-12), Review Section (p. 9-11) and notice the terms in bold throughout the Chapter. Additionally, for the quiz questions associated with this unit, note the Review Questions below.

Review Questions:

Also, see the author’s questions on page 9-13.

  • Look to the outline worksheet, do the introduction’s suggested areas in worksheet match the advice of the author? How?
  • When should you start writing your introduction and conclusion, before or after writing your body?
  • Rank order the 10 attention-getting devices listed in this chapter in the order that you feel most comfortable using.
  • Now, rank order the 10 attention-getting devices listed in this chapter in the order that you most want to hear from another speaker.
  • How can humor “go wrong” in some situations?
  • How can you create a sense of connection, goodwill or “ethos”/credibility in a Tribute speech?
  • Why is a preview statement needed, even in a Special Occasion Speech?
  • What can you do to show your audience that you are ready to end?
  • Why is a summary necessary, even in Special Occasion Speeches?
  • How can you show a relationship to the introduction in the conclusion? Why is this helpful?
  • Why should you not end on, “that’s it.”
  • How can you mirror your attention-getting device and the conclusion’s clincher?

See the LodeStar Student Activities Posted in D2L for Aditional Application, Review and Study Resources.

Related Online Chapter 9 Resources from The Public Speaking Project.org

Chapter 9 Identified Links:

Chapter 9 Videos & PowerPoints from the Textbook

Additional Chapter 9 Online Related Materials

Thomas Damp’s Tutorial on Outlines using the PublicSpeakingProject

How to write an Introduction and/or Conclusion

  • 4 Keys To A Killer Speech Introduction (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-TMK4PiF-g) “Ty Bennett teaches 4 keys to a killer introduction. If you are giving a speech or presentation then learn how to set yourself up to succeed with your introduction instead of setting yourself up for failure from the start.”


  • Great Openings and Closings (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyE1Kz0e–0) “Too often, a speaker loses his audience before he even gets to the core of his speech. In this video, Deborah Grayson Riegel teaches viewers how to create terrific openings and closings to presentations.”


  • Great Openings and Closings (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yl_FJAOcFgQ)  “In this clip Mark Powell provides best practice tips for opening and closing presentations. Go to www.cambridge.org/elt/dynamicpresentations to learn more about Mark Powell’s course.”


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Special Occasion Speaking

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Summary

If you were asked to become someone’s best man or maid of honor, would you be thrilled or fearful to give the “official toast” at the reception? Most likely, you’d possess aspects of both thrill and fear. If your grandparent received an honor at work and you were asked to introduce him or her, how would you react? As rare as these situations may seem, special occasions tend to pop up more frequently than one would expect; it might be a situation where you feel compelled to notice or shun these events. Sadly, we all will find ourselves losing loved ones — will you feel empowered to share your feelings and memories with others regarding your grief over the loss of a loved one? Some of us just do not want to do so — others would like to if only they felt courage; and, of course, still others will artfully step up at the moment and give a prepared or impromptu speech. It is the hope of your instructor that you will feel confident to make the best decision for yourself. Hence, the goal is, that when you feel called (or pressured) to “step up,” even with some level of communication apprehension, you will have the proper presence of mind and a solid strategy to do so. Special Occasion speeches are among the most practical speeches we’ll give in class. Who knows, you might be asked to become a keynote speaker, accept an award, or just give an acclimating and warm welcome to a new employee. Chapter 17 offers advice on how to do so and how to approach important meetings, celebrations, conferences, services, graduations, memorials and other events as a confident Special Occasion speaker. Above all, as you read the chapter, remember, as a Special Occasion speaker, you are a representative of others — your family, workplace, team, or, given our globalized economy, community/country. So, staying positive is great advice!

In our unit, you will see how Shelby (and other sample speakers) pays tribute to her great-grandmother. You will have an opportunity to pay tribute to a person, place or thing as well. The best advice for topic selection is to decide upon a topic to which you can speak with confidence, authority, and controlled emotion; that is, do not be in such an emotional state that you are unable to effectively share your message. Try not to think about yourself and you may use a number of methods (mindful breathing, confiding in a close friend, etc.) to lessen anxiety. One strategy is to think of your message, shared with loved ones of whom you will speak about, as a GIFT truly from the heart. This does not happen often! Think of it as your own special, personal gift to the particular loved one you will speak of — it is NOT you, but your loving message and remembrances of the person honored that will be the audience’s focus. Additionally, members of your audience are also compelled as they hear your message to think of their own grandmothers who perhaps were not of the caliber of the great woman you are commemorating. Ask your peers and instructor for feedback as you select your topic. This speech is among the most emotionally impactful your class will collectively listen to.

Chapter 17 Outline:

These are the key areas outlined by the author of The Public Speaking Project.’s  Chapter 17, Juliann C. Scholl, Ph.D. (2011):

  • Background of Special Occasion Speaking
    • Epideictic Oratory – Purpose of Special Occasion Speaking
  • Types of Special Occasion Speeches
    • Speech of Introduction
    • Toast and Roast
    • Speech to Present an Award
    • Acceptance Speech
    • Keynote Address
    • Commencement Speech
    • Commemorative Speeches and Tributes
    • After-Dinner Speech
  • General Guidelines for Special Occasion Speeches: Keeping the Speech Short; Acknowledging the Obvious; Staying Positive; Using Humor
  • Conclusion
  • Review
  • Questions and Activities
  • Glossary
  • References

(Schol, 2011, p. 17-1)

Chapter 17 Review and Study Terms:

Also, see page 17-11 for the Chapter 17 Glossary and other review materials.

  • What is “Epideictic Oratory?”
  • How does the general purpose of a special occasion speech differ from that of an informative speech or persuasive speech?
  • Define and explain the expectations/guidelines for each of the following types of special occasion speeches:
    • Speech of Introduction
    • Toast and Roast
    • Speech to Present an Award
    • Acceptance Speech
    • Keynote Address
    • Commencement Speech
    • Commemorative Speeches and Tributes
    • After-Dinner Speech.
  • Why is Special Occasion speaking so contextual? In other words, why does a Special Occasion Speaker need to be able to change at a moment’s notice if needed?
  • How can humor be misinterpreted in a special occasion speech?
  • Agree or disagree and explain: Special Occasion speeches don’t  have any format and are completely open to the time you want to spend, so just “show up and wing it” to be “in the moment.”

See the LodeStar Student Activities Posted in D2L for Aditional Application, Review and Study Resources.

Related Online Chapter 17 Resources from The Public Speaking Project.org

Chapter 17 Identified Links

Chapter 17 Videos & PowerPoints from the Textbook

The textbook offers professionally narrated PowerPoint presentations on their YouTube Channel: (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCmICWAfi4k_-OpZeJf69qiQ )

Additional Chapter 17 Online Related Materials






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The Public Speaking Resource Project by Lori Halverson-Wente and Mark Halverson-Wente is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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